TF-CBT is a conjoint child and parent psychotherapy model for children who are experiencing significant emotional and behavioral difficulties related to traumatic life events. It is a components-based hybrid treatment model that incorporates trauma-sensitive interventions with cognitive behavioral, family, and humanistic principles.
CPP is a treatment for trauma-exposed children aged 0-5. Typically, the child is seen with his or her primary caregiver, and the dyad is the unit of treatment. CPP examines how the trauma and the caregivers’ relational history affect the caregiver-child relationship and the child’s developmental trajectory. A central goal is to support and strengthen the caregiver-child relationship as a vehicle for restoring and protecting the child’s mental health. Treatment also focuses on contextual factors that may affect the caregiver-child relationship (e.g., culture and socioeconomic and immigration related stressors). Targets of the intervention include caregivers’ and children’s maladaptive representations of themselves and each other and interactions and behaviors that interfere with the child’s mental health. Over the course of treatment, caregiver and child are guided to create a joint narrative of the psychological traumatic event and identify and address traumatic triggers that generate dysregulated behaviors and affect.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a dyadic behavioral intervention for children (ages 2.0 – 7.0 years) and their parents or caregivers that focuses on decreasing externalizing child behavior problems (e.g., defiance, aggression), increasing child social skills and cooperation, and improving the parent-child attachment relationship. It teaches parents traditional play-therapy skills to use as social reinforcers of positive child behavior and traditional behavior management skills to decrease negative child behavior. Parents are taught and practice these skills with their child in a playroom while coached by a therapist. The coaching provides parents with immediate feedback on their use of the new parenting skills, which enables them to apply the skills correctly and master them rapidly. PCIT is time-unlimited; families remain in treatment until parents have demonstrated mastery of the treatment skills and rate their child’s behavior as within normal limits on a standardized measure of child behavior. Therefore treatment length varies but averages about 14 weeks, with hour-long weekly sessions.
Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is designed for families who are referred for problems related to the management of anger and/or aggression, which include several behaviors on a continuum reflecting the use of coercion and/or physical force. Specifically, AF-CBT seeks to improve the relationships between children and their parents/caregivers who experience any of the following clinical concerns:
Anger and verbal aggression, including emotional abuse
Ongoing family conflict
Child behavior problems, including physical aggression
Threats or use of harsh/punitive/ineffective physical discipline or punishment
Child physical abuse
Any and all of these patterns may be demonstrated by an individual caregiver or a child/adolescent, but they also may characterize the interactions of the family. Accordingly, AF-CBT targets individual caregiver and child characteristics, as well as the larger family context.
AF-CBT is a treatment based on principles derived from learning and behavioral theory, family systems, cognitive therapy, developmental victimology, and the psychology of aggression.
Cognitive Therapy (CT) has been rated by the CEBC in the area of Depression Treatment (Adult). CT is a form of psychotherapy proven in numerous clinical trials to be effective for a wide variety of disorders. The therapist and client work together as a team to identify and solve problems. Therapists help clients to overcome their difficulties by changing their thinking, behavior, and emotional responses. CT and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are often used interchangeably. There are, however, numerous subsets of CBT that are narrower in scope than CT: e.g., problem-solving therapy, stress-inoculation therapy, motivational interviewing, dialectical behavior therapy, behavioral modification, exposure and response prevention, etc. Cognitive therapy uses techniques from all these subsets at times, within a cognitive framework. CT was developed by the Academy of Cognitive Therapy’s president, Aaron T. Beck, MD, in the early 1960s.
Through the play therapy process children create play that resembles the emotional experiences they are struggling with internally. These experiences usually cannot be expressed verbally. Children will select special toys to include in their play and use those toys to recreate issues that represent emotional conflicts that are important to the child. Beginning with this expression, the child’s play evolves until the child gains a sense of understanding and comfort over this situation. Research supports the effectiveness of play therapy with children experiencing: PTSD, behavioral issues, depression, impulsivity, self-esteem issues, academic difficulties, parent-child relationship struggles, social issues, anxiety, loss, divorce/separation, abuse and more… * Copyright 1998 Byron or Carol Norton
The formal definition of Animal Assisted Therapy: “AAT is a goal-directed intervention in which an animal that meets specific criteria is an integral part of the treatment process. AAT is directed and/or delivered by a health/human service professional with specialized expertise, and within the scope of practice of his/her profession.
AAT is designed to promote improvement in human physical, social, emotional, and/or cognitive functioning [cognitive functioning refers to thinking and intellectual skills]. AAT is provided in a variety of settings and may be group or individual in nature. This process is documented and evaluated.” (From Standards of Practice for Animal-Assisted Activities and Therapy)
AAT is used in counseling to assist with meeting the following goals:
Improvement in Mental Health.
Increase attention skills (i.e. paying attention, staying on task)
Develop leisure/recreation skills.
Improve willingness to be involved in a group activity.